Clawback: Previously given monies or benefits that are taken back because of specially arising circumstances. Also: a retraction of stock prices or of the market in general.
"Claw back" (the verb form) with this financial definition first appeared in print around 1953, and has been used chiefly in Great Britain and Commonwealth countries. ("Clawback" had an earlier meaning of "sycophant" or "flatterer.") It was picked up by investment bankers and venture capitalists in North America but was rarely used in general parlance until the recent global economic crisis. It's now seen with some frequency in reference to the retraction of large management bonuses. The violence of the image suggests that the effort will be a bloody one.
Note that in this September 2008 San Francisco Chronicle op-ed, the first mention of "claw back" is in quotation marks, indicating that readers may not be familiar with its non-literal sense:
The government should make a serious effort to "claw back" at least part of the bonuses paid to Wall Street executives before the meltdown. The cost of cleaning up Wall Street's debacle must not fall entirely on taxpayers' shoulders; those who profited from the derivatives casino should directly chip in. Clawing back executives' bonus pay will also make future decision-makers think twice before taking similar financial gambles, reducing the likelihood that another generation of Americans will be asked to bail out Wall Street.
A Senate draft document calls for a ban on incentive payments that the Treasury deems “inappropriate or excessive” and a “claw-back” provision, requiring executives to give up pay or severance benefits if the firm’s financial results are later shown to be overstated.